Authors

1 Health Human Resource Development Research Center, Department of Health Information Management, School of Management and Medical Informatics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 2Department of Health in Disasters and Emergencies, Health Human Resources Research Center, School of Management and Medical Informatics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Student Research Committee, Department of Health in Disasters and Emergencies, Health Human Resources Research Center, School of Management and Medical Informatics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4 4Unit of Security and Preparedness, Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden

Abstract

Introduction: Early education and training are mandatory toraise the knowledge and awareness of the healthcare staff. Iranis a disaster prone area with a high number of emergencies.This study aimed to assess the need for disaster and emergencymanagement education for Iranian medical students.Methods: Using two-round Delphi technique in 2017, 15 expertswithin the field of disaster and emergency management wereasked for their opinions concerning the education required forIranian medical students. Highly important educational domainsand their sub-domains selected with an agreement of above 70-80% were prioritized by AHP technique.Results: Of 41 identified and prioritized educational subjects,four main groups were obtained: 1) crisis and disaster primaryconcepts, 2) disease control skills, 3) management skills, and4) medical care skills. The medical care skills had the highestpriority (with a weight of 0.546), compared to other areas afterthe final analysis.Conclusion: Different areas of competency are needed to raiseawareness and preparedness in medical students in combatingcrisis and disasters. We propose a curriculum for Iranian medicalstudents and suggest it to be used for other professionals, who areinvolved in the process of disaster management.Keywords: Disasters, Crisis, Medical students, Education, Interdisciplinary, Awareness

  1. Kilci F, Yetis Kara B, Bozkaya B. Locating temporary shelter areas after an earthquake: a case for Istanbul. Journal of the Operational Research Society. 2013.
  2. Koenig KL, Schultz CH. Koenig and Schultz's disaster medicine: comprehensive principles and practices: Cambridge University Press; 2010.
  3. Zhang Z, Wang W, Shi Z, Wang L, Zhang J. Mental health problems among the survivors in the hard-hit areas of the Yushu earthquake. PLoS One. 2012;7(e46449).
  4. Pietrzak R, Tracy M, Galea S, Kilpatrick D, Ruggiero K, al e. Resilience in the face of disaster: prevalence and longitudinal course of mental disorders following hurricane Ike. PLoS One. 2012;7(e38964).
  5. Usami M, Iwadare Y, Kodaira M, Watanabe K, Aoki M, al e. Relationships between traumatic symptoms and environmental damage conditions among children 8 months after the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami. PLoS One. 2012;7(e50721).
  6. White H, Hsing P, Cho W, Shank T, Cordes E, al e. Impact of the deepwater horizon oil spill on a deep-water coral community in the Gulf of Mexico. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20303–8.
  7. Xu G, Ying Y, Liu Y, Chang W, Ni H, al e. Incidences, types, and influencing factors of snow disaster-associated injuries in Ningbo, China, 2008. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2012;6:363-9.
  8. Sanderson D, Sharma A. World Disasters Report 2016. Resilience: saving lives today, investing for tomorrow International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. 2016.
  9. Naderi N, Mohammadi J. Locating Temporary Housing after the Earthquake, Using GIS and AHPTechniques (A Case Study: 15 Districts of Isfahan City). Journal of Social Issues & Humanities. 2015;3(12):71-5.
  10. Taheri Azad l, Taheri Azad A. The role of education in reducing the effects of natural disasters (earthquake case study). Conferences deal with natural disasters in 2006; Iran2006.
  11. Asgari A. In the Search of Management and Planning principals. International Congress of Crisis Management in Disasters Tehran University; Tehran2007.
  12. Seeger M, Ulmer R, Novak M, Sellnow T. Post-crisis discourse and organizational change, failure and renewal. Journal of Organizational Change Management. 2005;18(1):78-95.
  13. Alexander D. Towards the development of a standard in emergency planning. Disaster Prev Manag. 2005;14(2):158-75.
  14. Subbarao I, Lyznicki J, Hsu E, al e. A consensus-based educational framework and competency set for the discipline of disaster medicine and public health preparedness. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2008;2:57-68.
  15. Su T, Han X, Chen F, Du Y, Zhang H, Yin J, et al. Knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among health professionals, medical students, and local residents in Shanghai, China. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e67041.
  16. Weiner E, Irwin M, Trangenstein P, Gordon J. Emergency preparedness curriculum in nursing schools in the United States. Nurs Educ Perspect. 2005;26(6):334-9.
  17. Schriver J, Talmadge R, Chuong R, Hedges J. Emergency nursing: historical, current, and future roles. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10(7):798-804.
  18. Usher K, Mayner L. Disaster nursing: a descriptive survey of Australian undergraduate nursing curricula. Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal. 2011;14(2):75-80.
  19. Radović V, Ćurčić L. The opportunities of crises and emergency risk communication in activities of Serbian public health workforce in emergencies. Iranian journal of public health. 2012;41(10):15.
  20. Rebmann T, Elliot M, Artman D, Vannatta M, Wakefield M. Impact of an Education Intervention on Missouri K-12 School Disaster and Biological Event Preparedness. Journal of School Health. 2016;86(11):794-802.
  21. Saide mehr S, Geravandi S, Sahebalzamani M, Mohammadi M. The effect of education on awareness of nurses about disaster management. Journal of Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences. 2014;2(4):46-52.
  22. Thomas PA, Kern DE, Hughes MT, Chen BY. Curriculum Development for Medical Education: A Six-Step Approach: JHU Press; 2015.
  23. Karle H. Global standards and accreditation in medical education: a view from the WFME. Academic medicine. 2006;81(12):S43-S8.
  24. Hung H-L, Altschuld JW, Lee Y-F. Methodological and conceptual issues confronting a cross-country Delphi study of educational program evaluation. Evaluation and program planning. 2008;31(2):191-8.
  25. Zeigler VL, Decker-Walters B. Determining psychosocial research priorities for adolescents with implantable cardioverter defibrillators using Delphi methodology. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2010;25(5):398-404.
  26. Ghodsi-pour SH. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP). 5th Ed ed. Tehran: Amirkabir University of Tech Pub; 2007.
  27. Saaty TL. Fundamentals of decision making and priority theory. Ed n, editor. Pittsburgh: RWS Pub; 2000.
  28. Barrimah I, Adam I, Al-Mohaimeed A. Disaster medicine education for medical students: Is it a real need? Medical teacher. 2016 Mar 25;38(sup1):S60-5.
  29. Algaali KYA, Djalali A, Della Corte F, Ismail MA, Ingrassia PL. Postgraduate education in disaster health and medicine. Frontiers in public health. 2015;3.
  30. Pfenninger EG, Domres BD, Stahl W, Bauer A, Houser CM, Himmelseher S. Medical student disaster medicine education: the development of an educational resource. International journal of emergency medicine. 2010;3(1):9-20.
  31. Su T, Han X, Chen F, Du Y, Zhang H, Yin J, et al. Knowledge Levels and Training Needs of Disaster Medicine among Health Professionals, Medical Students, and Local Residents in Shanghai, China. PLOS ONE. June 2013;8(6):e67041.
  32. Khorram-Manesh A, Ashkenazi M, Djalali A, Ingrassia PL, Friedl T, von Armin G, et al. Education in disaster management and emergencies: Defining a new European course. Disaster medicine and public health preparedness. 2015;9(3):245-55.
  33. JALALINIA F, Alhani f. Pathology of training the course on emergency, and crisis management in nursing curriculum: a qualitative study. IRANIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL EDUCATION. 2011;11(3):254-68.
  34. Bolyard E, Scott R, Banerjee S, Pearson M, Team HP. Blue Ribbon Abstract Award: Assessment of Education and Communication Resources for Public Health Emergencies in US Hospitals. American Journal of Infection Control. 2004;32(3):E13.
  35. Tan Y, Liao X, Su H, Li C, Xiang J, Dong Z. Disaster preparedness among university students in Guangzhou, China: assessment of status and demand for disaster education. Disaster medicine and public health preparedness. 2017;11(3):310-7.
  36. Kaiser HE, Barnett DJ, Hsu EB, Kirsch TD, James JJ, Subbarao I. Perspectives of future physicians on disaster medicine and public health preparedness: challenges of building a capable and sustainable auxiliary medical workforce. Disaster medicine and public health preparedness. 2009;3(4):210-6.
  37. SAEIDIMEHR S, GERAVANDI S, SAHEBALZAMANI M, MOHAMMADI M. THE EFFECT OF EDUCATION ON AWARENESS OF NURSES ABOUT DISASTER MANAGEMENT. (JOURNAL OF HEALTH CHIMES) JOURNAL OF TORBAT HEYDARIYEH UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES 2015;2(4):46-52.
  38. Kaji AH, Coates W, Fung C-C. A disaster medicine curriculum for medical students. Teaching and learning in medicine. 2010;22(2):116-22.
  39. Wenk M, Waurick R, Schotes D, Wenk M, Gerdes C, Van Aken HK, et al. Simulation-based medical education is no better than problem-based discussions and induces misjudgment in self-assessment. Advances in health sciences education. 2009;14(2):159-71.
  40. de Boer J, Dubouloz M. Handbook of disaster medicine: VSP; 2000.
  41. Deshpande V. Disaster management as part of curriculum for undergraduate and postgraduate courses: The Symbiosis model. Indian journal of occupational and environmental medicine. 2011;15(3):97.
  42. Sassa K, Rouhban B, Briceño S, McSaveney M, He B. Landslides: global risk preparedness: Springer Science & Business Media; 2012.
  43. Benson M, Koenig KL, Schultz CH. Disaster triage: START, then SAVE—a new method of dynamic triage for victims of a catastrophic earthquake. Prehospital and disaster medicine. 1996;11(2):117-24.
  44. Skivington S, DeAtley C, Saruwatari M. Hospital Incident Command System Guidebook. Emergency Medical Services Authority of California. 2006.
  45. Jensen J, Thompson S. The incident command system: a literature review. Disasters. 2016;40(1):158-82.