Effects of an osteoporosis prevention training program on physical activity-related stages of change and self-efficacy among university students, Shiraz, Iran: a randomized clinical trial



Introduction: Osteoporosis is a major problem in today's world, being
characterized by decreased bone mass and bone change. Due to deficiency
of theory-based studies in young population, especially in students, there
are significant knowledge gaps of effective planning. The present study was
performed in response to this need. The present study investigated the effect of an empowerment program on physical activity related stages of change and self-efficacy in preventing osteoporosis among university students.
Methods: In this randomized controlled trial (IRCT: IRCT201212016261N2),
152 female students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were selected
through multi-stages cluster sampling and were randomly assigned to an
experimental (n=76) and a control (n=76) group. The pre-and post-intervention data were collected using the Stages of Exercise Change Questionnaire (SECQ) of Marcos with Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.89 and also the self-efficacy scale with a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.88 and Test-Retest Correlation Coefficient of 0.80. The educational intervention for the experimental group took place through problem-based learning method, small group discussion, and training manuals. In addition, training CDs and brochures were given to the subjects and short SMSs were sent to them. The data were analyzed through SPSS, version 14, using Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test, Wilcoxon and regression tests.
Results: Pre-intervention findings showed that participants had behavioral
constructs below the expected levels. The results showed that the experimental group received significant statistical increase after the intervention in stage of change. Before the intervention, the mean scores of stages of changes in the experimental groups was 2.28±0.86 but this rose to 3±0.84 in the first post-test and 3.22±0.84 in the second post-test. The control group showed a significant increase in stage of change without intervention (pre-test 2.04±0.82, first post-test 2.18±0.87 and second post-test 2.3±0.89). However, this increase was more significant in the experimental group (p<0.001). The mean score of selfefficacy
in physical activity in the intervention group upon completion of the
course showed a significant increase (p<0.001). A significant correlation was
found between the construct stage of change and self-efficacy.
Conclusion: Theory-based curriculum is effective in empowering individuals
in stage of change and developing self-efficacy in physical activity of university students.

Keywors: Empowerment, Osteoporosis, Behavior, Exercise, Self efficacy

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 P ISSN: 2322-2220            E ISSN:2322-3561      

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