Validity & reliability of the Persian version of Grasha-Richmann student learning styles scale



Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the psychometric
properties of Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Styles Scale.
Method: The participants included 1039 students (421 students in human and 618 students in technical sciences), selected through the stratified sampling method from Tehran University. They answered the Grasha-Riechmann student learning style scale and the data was analyzed with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses.
Results: The findings acquired from exploratory factor analysis (n=561), using principal components analysis with varimax rotation showed that Grasha- Riechmann Student Learning Styles Scale includes six factors: Avoidant, Collaborative, Participative, Dependent, Competitive, and Independent. The factors acquired from confirmatory factor analysis (n=478), as model fit indices indicated, was confirmed by indices in exploratory factor analysis. The internal consistency of each subscale, ranging from 0.58 to 0.80, was at an acceptable level.
Conclusion: According to the findings, it seems that Participative Styles Scale to be an instrument qualifying validity and reliability for measuring learning interactive styles.

Keywords: Validity, Reliability, Grasha-Richmann scale, Learning styles

Full Text:



Zhang LF, Sternberg RJ. Thinking styles, abilities, and

academic achievement among Hong Kong university

student. Hong Kong educational research association.


Sternberg RJ, Grigorenko E.L. Are cognitive styles still

in style? American psychologist. 1997;52(7):700-12.

Zhang LF. Thinking styles: Their relationships with

modes of thinking and academic performance.

Educational Psychology. 2002; 22:331–48. doi:


Grasha AF, Riechmann S.W. A rational to developing

and assessing the construct validity of a student

learning styles scale instrument. Journal of Psychology.

; 87: 213-23.

Imamipour S, Shams Esfandabad, H. Learning and

cognitive styles. Tehran: Samt; 2011. Persian.

Seyf AA. Modern Educational Psychology. Tehran:

Nashre Doran; 2011. Persian.

Montgomery SM. Student learning styles and their

implications for teaching. University of Michigan Ann

Arbor, MI 1998.

Seidel LE, England EM. Gregorc’s cognitive styles: college

students’ preferences for teaching methods and testing

techniques. Percept Motor Skills. 1999;88(3):859-75.

Entwistle NJ, Ramsden P. Understanding Student

Learning. London: Croom Helm; 2007.

Grasha AF. Teaching with style: A practical guide to

enhancing learning by understanding teaching and

learning style. Pittsburgh: Alliance publishers; 1996.

Ahmadi S, Khezri H. The relationship between math

anxiety and students’ learning styles. New thought in

education of Roudehen Azad University. 2006;1(4).


Arizi HR, Abedi A. Taji M. The relationship between

learning styles profile of guidance school students in

Isfehan and their academic performance in math and

science. Educational Innovations Quarterly. 2010;34.


Elahi T. The relationship between field-Dependent and

field-independent learning styles and achievement in

English: Tarbiat Modarres University; 2002. Persian.

Hoseininasab D, Valinejad Y. Examination of field-

Dependent and field-independent cognitive styles

and self-regulated learning with math performance

of third grade students in guidance school. Journal of

Psychology & education. 2003;3(3/4): 65-78. Persian.

Kadivar P, Homayouni A.R, Abdollahi M.H. The

Relationship between cognitive learning styles and

course choosing among male students in high school


Meyers LS, Gamst G.C, Guarino A.J. Applied

multivariate research. Tehran: Roshd; 2011. Persian.

17. Hooman HA. Structural Equation Modeling by

LISRELL software. Tehran: Samt; 2009. Persian.

Aijaz AG, Rabia T. Assessing learning styles of student

teachers at federal college of education. Procedia Social

and Behavioral Sciences. 2011; 30: 267 – 71. Persian.

Amir R, Jelas Z.M. Teaching and learning styles in

higher education institutions: Do they match. Procedia

Social and Behavioral Sciences.7(C):680–4. Persian.

Baykul Y, Gürsel M, Sulak H, Ertekin E, Yazıcı E,

Dülger O. et al. Validity and reliability study of Grasha-

Riechmann student learning style scale. International

Journal of Human and Social Sciences. 2010;5(3): 177-

Hamidah JS, Sarina M. N, Kamaruzaman J. The Social

interaction learning styles of science and social science

students. Asian Social Science. 2009;5(7):58-64. Persian.

View Counter: Abstract | 3461 | and PDF | 1493 |


  • There are currently no refbacks.

 P ISSN: 2322-2220            E ISSN:2322-3561      

Journal Office Address: Education Development Center, 3th floor, Sina Sadra Halls Complex, Neshat Ave., Shiraz, Iran.  

Publisher: Shiraz University of Medical Sciences