Scholarship criteria in higher education from expert’s viewpoints: A qualitative study



Introduction: The scholarship domains based on Boyer’s definition includes discovery, teaching and learning, application, integration and engagement, but it is a main question that which criteria must a scholarship activities have? In this research, the characteristics of scholarship activities have been studied using a qualitative approach based on higher education experts’ viewpoints from four domains [humanities, engineering, basic sciences, and medical sciences]
Method: The method of this research was based on qualitative approach using a semi- structured interview in 2013. The sampling method was objective and 14 faculty members participated in the research. Data were analyzed using the expert’s viewpoints.
Results: The analysis of the experts’ viewpoints showed differences, infra-discipline characteristics. All of the experts reported that creativity, defining the correct problem and scientific reasoning were the first preferences and then necessity for sharing knowledge with peers, not only through publishing the articles but also in academic community in their universities. Based on the experts’ viewpoints, the research framework was designed using 6 main criteria, 15 indicators and 43 items. 
Conclusion: Since reasoning and defining the correct problem are the first step in beginning the scholarship activities and affect the quality, all of the experts emphasize them. It is necessary to establish the knowledge sharing mechanism in the entire scholarship domain.

Keywords: Scholarship, Criteria, Higher education

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