Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Medical Education, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Medical Surgical Department, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Medical Education, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Health Professions Education Research Center, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Internal Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Internal Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;

5 Department of Medical Education, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Educational Development Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Students observe role models and learn from them
in a variety of educational settings. Although it is known that
role models impact the professional and character development
of students, some clinical teachers are poor role models. We
conducted a review to summarize the evidence that could help
clinical teachers promote their role modeling.
Methods: We performed a review search using specific keywords
(curriculum, role model*, faculty development, teach*, program*
and education) through electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE,
and ERIC). We obtained 320 qualitative and quantitative studies.
Having removed the duplicate references, we read 244 titles and
excluded irrelevant ones. Eighty-two articles were retained and
the abstract of each was read. Finally, 20 articles were included.
Results: According to the results of our review, three major
themes were identified: 1) features of a good role model
composed of teaching, clinical, and personal-interpersonal skills,
2) self-improvement of role modeling, and 3) faculty development
programs.
Conclusions: Role models have a profound effect on the attitudes
and behaviors of medical students. It is important for clinical
teachers to make an intentional effort to articulate what aspects
they are modeling. This study can help the faculty members to
be an effective role model. Also, the findings of this review could
form the foundation of a faculty development program in order to
foster role modeling in clinical settings.

Keywords