Document Type: Review article

Authors

1 Department of Medical Education, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Medical Surgical Department, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Medical Education, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Health Professions Education Research Center, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Internal Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Internal Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;

5 Department of Medical Education, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Educational Development Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Students observe role models and learn from them in a variety of educational settings. Although it is known that role models impact the professional and character development of students, some clinical teachers are poor role models. We conducted a review to summarize the evidence that could help clinical teachers promote their role modeling.
Methods: We performed a review search using specific keywords (curriculum, role model*, faculty development, teach*, program* and education) through electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE,
and ERIC). We obtained 320 qualitative and quantitative studies. Having removed the duplicate references, we read 244 titles and excluded irrelevant ones. Eighty-two articles were retained and
the abstract of each was read. Finally, 20 articles were included.
Results: According to the results of our review, three major themes were identified: 1) features of a good role model composed of teaching, clinical, and personal-interpersonal skills, 2) self-improvement of role modeling, and 3) faculty development programs.
Conclusions: Role models have a profound effect on the attitudes and behaviors of medical students. It is important for clinical teachers to make an intentional effort to articulate what aspects they are modeling. This study can help the faculty members to be an effective role model. Also, the findings of this review could form the foundation of a faculty development program in order to foster role modeling in clinical settings.

Keywords